Pakistan is located on the continent of Asia and shares borders with Iran on the west, Afghanistan on the north-west, China in the north and India on the east. The Arabian Sea is located to its south. The northern region of the country houses the Karakoram mountain range and the Hindukush. To the south-east part of the country is the province of Punjab, made up of flat, alluvial plains. Five main rivers run through this region which eventually combine with the Indus River flowing south and out into the Arabian Sea. The southern-most region of the country is occupied by the province of Sind with the Thar Desert on the east and Kirthar range on the west. The Baluchistan plateau lies to the west and is an arid tablelands surrounded by dry mountains.
Pakistan’s history traces back to 2,500 B.C.E. when a very sophisticated civilization existed in the Indus Valley. Archaeological excavations at Harappa, and Mohenjo-Daro, two of the several important sites show evidence of advanced civilizations settled here in the ancient times. The country has since been a part of different empires that helped to influence its arts and culture. Pakistan came into existence as an independent country in 1947 when the British rulers granted it independence.
Pakistan’s flora includes oak, pine, deodar, maple poplar and mulberry while fauna is made up of boar, deer, crocodile, bear and waterfowl. The wetlands to the south of the country provide vital habitat for a large number of species. The migration season brings in approximately one million waterfowl representing over one hundred species and is a sight to behold.
Pakistan holds a number of honours that make it stand out in the world. It has the world’s deepest seaport in Gawadar, and the largest irrigation system. In cooperation with Nestle Corporation it is home to the world’s largest milk processing plant. It is the only Muslim nuclear power and is noted for having the best trained air-force pilots. It also has the seventh largest collection of scientists and engineers in the world. The country has the youngest Microsoft certified technologist at twelve years old, and finally roughly fifty percent of the footballs in the world are supplied by Pakistan.
Government: Federal republic, Parliamentary republic
Official languages: Urdu (national), English Language (official)
Religion: Muslim, Hindu, Christian
Currency: Pakistani Rupee
Area: 796,095 sq km or 307,373 sq mi
Dialing code: +92