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Bolivia, or the Plurinational State of Bolivia by its official name, is the only landlocked country, apart from Paraguay, in South America. Independent from Spain since 1847, Bolivia is nowadays a presidential constitutional republic, divided into 9 departments.

The country, which was named after a famous leader in the Spanish-American wars of independence, Simon Bolivar, has two capitals: Sucre, the constitutional capital, and La Paz, the governmental one. The largest city in Bolivia is Santa Cruz de la Sierra.

There are 37 official languages in Bolivia, but Spanish is the most widely spoken; more specifically, 88% of its 10 million people speak it.  The other 36 recognized languages are spoken by Bolivia’s native indigenous nations.


Bolivia’s economy is largely sustained by its tourism revenues. The main touristic attractions in the country include the salt flats, or Salar de Uyuni, San Pedro Prison, Coca Museum, La Angostura Lake, Lake Titicaca, and many others. Major exports include tin, silver, and natural gas. In addition, Bolivia sits on the largest natural resources of lithium, amounting to more than half of the world’s entire reserves. However, the country is currently not exploiting them due to the fact that they are located under Bolivia’s main attraction, the salt flats. The country’s currency is the Boliviano (BOB).

The climate varies quite significantly from one corner of Bolivia to the other. In the east, the climate is more tropical sub-humid, while the west region of the country, where the Andes are located, features a polar climate.


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