Turkmenistan is located in Central Asia and bound by the Caspian Sea along the western border. Its neighbouring countries include Iran on the south and southwest, Afghansitan to the southeast, Kazakhstan to the northwest and Uzbekistan to the east. More than eighty percent of the country is taken up by the Karakum desert. Kopet Dag Mountains run along the Iranian border, while the Balkhan Range is towards the western side and Köýtendag Rangea along the border with Uzbekistan. The Amu-Darya river is the country’s main source of fresh water and runs along the eastern border.
The climate of Turkmensitan is defined as subtropical desert and there are four definite seasons. Winters tend to be windy but mostly cool and dry with temperatures at times falling below zero, with rare appearance of snow. Spring brings with it the scant precipitation the country receives. Autumn brings warm, pleasant sunny weather.
Economy of Turkmenistan is very centralized where nearly ninety percent of the workers are still employed by the government. Only some of the land and industry have been put in private hands. Remnants of Soviet-style methods of operations with financial mismanagement and exaggerations keep the country from digging itself out of poverty, with sixty percent of its population living below the poverty line; all this despite its huge reserves of natural gas and oil.
Turkmenistan landscape is unique because the country is located at the intersection of three main natural landscape zones deserts, oases and mountains. About 15% of the country is covered by mountains and foothills, 12% is water and non-soil formations and the remaining is a desert. The wildlife in the country is composed of leopards, mountain sheep, leopard, hyena, lynx and gazelles.
Government: Presidential system, Republic
Area: 488,100 square kilometers (188,456 square miles)
Currency: Turkmenistan manat
Language: Turkmen Language (official), Russian is widely spoken
Ethnic Groups: Turkmen 85%, Russians 7%, Uzbeks 5%, other 3%
Religion: Muslim, Eastern (Russian) Orthodox
Dialling Code: +993